## TRANSFORMER BASICS

One of the main reasons that we use alternating AC voltages and currents in our homes and workplace’s is that AC supplies can be easily generated at a convenient voltage, transformed (hence the name transformer) into much higher voltages and then distributed around the country using a national grid of pylons and cables over very long distances.

The reason for transforming the voltage to a much higher level is that higher distribution voltages implies lower currents for the same power and therefore lower I2*R losses along the networked grid of cables. These higher AC transmission voltages and currents can then be reduced to a much lower, safer and usable voltage level where it can be used to supply electrical equipment in our homes and workplaces, and all this is possible thanks to the basic Voltage Transformer.

voltage transformer basics

A Typical Voltage Transformer

The Voltage Transformer can be thought of as an electrical component rather than an electronic component. A transformer basically is very simple static (or stationary) electro-magnetic passive electrical device that works on the principle of Faraday’s law of induction by converting electrical energy from one value to another.

The transformer does this by linking together two or more electrical circuits using a common oscillating magnetic circuit which is produced by the transformer itself. A transformer operates on the principals of “electromagnetic induction”, in the form of Mutual Induction.

Mutual induction is the process by which a coil of wire magnetically induces a voltage into another coil located in close proximity to it. Then we can say that transformers work in the “magnetic domain”, and transformers get their name from the fact that they “transform” one voltage or current level into another.

Transformers are capable of either increasing or decreasing the voltage and current levels of their supply, without modifying its frequency, or the amount of electrical power being transferred from one winding to another via the magnetic circuit.

A single phase voltage transformer basically consists of two electrical coils of wire, one called the “Primary Winding” and another called the “Secondary Winding”. For this tutorial we will define the “primary” side of the transformer as the side that usually takes power, and the “secondary” as the side that usually delivers power. In a single-phase voltage transformer the primary is usually the side with the higher voltage.

These two coils are not in electrical contact with each other but are instead wrapped together around a common closed magnetic iron circuit called the “core”. This soft iron core is not solid but made up of individual laminations connected together to help reduce the core’s losses.

The two coil windings are electrically isolated from each other but are magnetically linked through the common core allowing electrical power to be transferred from one coil to the other. When an electric current passed through the primary winding, a magnetic field is developed which induces a voltage into the secondary winding as show

### Single Phase Voltage Transformer

In other words, for a transformer there is no direct electrical connection between the two coil windings, thereby giving it the name also of an Isolation Transformer. Generally, the primary winding of a transformer is connected to the input voltage supply and converts or transforms the electrical power into a magnetic field. While the job of the secondary winding is to convert this alternating magnetic field into electrical power producing the required output voltage as shown.

## Transformer Construction (single-phase

- Where:
- V
_{P}– is the Primary Voltage - V
_{S}– is the Secondary Voltage - N
_{P}– is the Number of Primary Windings - N
_{S}– is the Number of Secondary Windings - Φ (phi) – is the Flux Linkage

Notice that the two coil windings are not electrically connected but are only linked magnetically. A single-phase transformer can operate to either increase or decrease the voltage applied to the primary winding. When a transformer is used to “increase” the voltage on its secondary winding with respect to the primary, it is called a **Step-up transformer**. When it is used to “decrease” the voltage on the secondary winding with respect to the primary it is called a **Step-down transformer**.

However, a third condition exists in which a transformer produces the same voltage on its secondary as is applied to its primary winding. In other words, its output is identical with respect to voltage, current and power transferred. This type of transformer is called an “Impedance Transformer” and is mainly used for impedance matching or the isolation of adjoining electrical circuits.

The difference in voltage between the primary and the secondary windings is achieved by changing the number of coil turns in the primary winding ( N_{P} ) compared to the number of coil turns on the secondary winding ( N_{S} ).

As the transformer is basically a linear device, a ratio now exists between the number of turns of the primary coil divided by the number of turns of the secondary coil. This ratio, called the ratio of transformation, more commonly known as a transformers “turns ratio”, ( TR ). This turns ratio value dictates the operation of the transformer and the corresponding voltage available on the secondary winding.

It is necessary to know the ratio of the number of turns of wire on the primary winding compared to the secondary winding. The turns ratio, which has no units, compares the two windings in order and is written with a colon, such as 3:1 (3-to-1). This means in this example, that if there are 3 volts on the primary winding there will be 1 volt on the secondary winding, 3 volts-to-1 volt. Then we can see that if the ratio between the number of turns changes the resulting voltages must also change by the same ratio, and this is true.

Transformers are all about “ratios”. The ratio of the primary to the secondary, the ratio of the input to the output, and the turns ratio of any given transformer will be the same as its voltage ratio. In other words for a transformer: “turns ratio = voltage ratio”. The actual number of turns of wire on any winding is generally not important, just the turns ratio and this relationship is given as:

### A Transformers Turns Ratio

Assuming an ideal transformer and the phase angles: Φ_{P} ≡ Φ_{S}

Note that the order of the numbers when expressing a transformers *turns ratio* value is very important as the turns ratio 3:1 expresses a very different transformer relationship and output voltage than one in which the turns ratio is given as: 1:3.

### Transformer Basics Example No1

A voltage transformer has 1500 turns of wire on its primary coil and 500 turns of wire for its secondary coil. What will be the turns ratio (TR) of the transformer.

This ratio of 3:1 (3-to-1) simply means that there are three primary windings for every one secondary winding. As the ratio moves from a larger number on the left to a smaller number on the right, the primary voltage is therefore stepped down in value as shown.

### Transformer Basics Example No2

If 240 volts rms is applied to the primary winding of the same transformer above, what will be the resulting secondary no load voltage.

￼￼

Again confirming that the transformer is a “step-down” transformer as the primary voltage is 240 volts and the corresponding secondary voltage is lower at 80 volts.

Then the main purpose of a transformer is to transform voltages at preset ratios and we can see that the primary winding has a set amount or number of windings (coils of wire) on it to suit the input voltage. If the secondary output voltage is to be the same value as the input voltage on the primary winding, then the same number of coil turns must be wound onto the secondary core as there are on the primary core giving an even turns ratio of 1:1 (1-to-1). In other words, one coil turn on the secondary to one coil turn on the primary.

If the output secondary voltage is to be greater or higher than the input voltage, (step-up transformer) then there must be more turns on the secondary giving a turns ratio of 1:N (1-to-N), where N represents the turns ratio number. Likewise, if it is required that the secondary voltage is to be lower or less than the primary, (step-down transformer) then the number of secondary windings must be less giving a turns ratio of N:1 (N-to-1).